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Curr Opin Biotechnol. 2009 Feb;20(1):74-82. doi: 10.1016/j.copbio.2009.01.009. Epub 2009 Feb 23.

Lymphatic imaging in humans with near-infrared fluorescence.

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  • 1Center of Molecular Imaging, Institute of Molecular Medicine, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, TX 77030, USA.


While the lymphatic system is increasingly associated with diseases of prevalence, study of these diseases is difficult owing to the paucity of imaging techniques with the sensitivity and temporal resolution to discriminate lymphatic function. Herein, we review the known, pertinent features of the human lymphatic system in health and disease and set the context for a number of emerging studies that use near-infrared fluorescence imaging to non-invasively assess tumor draining lymphatic basins in cancer patients, intraoperatively guide resection of first draining lymph nodes, and to interrogate the difference between normal and aberrant lymphatic structure and function.

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