Display Settings:

Format

Send to:

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
J Evol Biol. 2009 May;22(5):942-53. doi: 10.1111/j.1420-9101.2009.01703.x. Epub 2009 Feb 18.

Coevolution between crossbills and black pine: the importance of competitors, forest area and resource stability.

Author information

  • 1Department of Zoology and Physiology, Program in Ecology, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY, USA. cbenkman@uwyo.edu

Abstract

Studies of predator-prey interactions have found that geographically structured coevolution has played an important role in the adaptive diversification of crossbills (Loxia spp.). We extend those studies by considering common crossbills (L. curvirostra) in the Mediterranean where they rely on seeds in the cones of black pine (Pinus nigra). On the continent, where tree squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris) are present, enhanced defenses against crossbills were most evident in larger areas of pine forest. On islands in the absence of tree squirrels, crossbills and black pine have coevolved in a predator-prey arms race on Cyprus but not Corsica. In contrast to other conifers that island endemic crossbills rely upon, black pine does not hold seeds in its cones year round. Consequently, key to the strong crossbill-pine interaction on Cyprus is likely the presence of an alternative conifer that provides seeds during early summer when black pine seeds are scarce.

PMID:
19228273
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

0 comments
How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Icon for Blackwell Publishing
    Loading ...
    Write to the Help Desk