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Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2009 Apr;35(4):577-81; discussion 581. doi: 10.1016/j.ejcts.2009.01.001. Epub 2009 Feb 13.

The effect of hypothermia on neuronal viability following cardiopulmonary bypass and circulatory arrest in newborn piglets.

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  • 1Department of Surgery, The University of California - San Diego, San Diego, CA, USA.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To determine the effect of recovery with mild hypothermia after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA) on the activity of selected key proteins involved in initiation (Bax, Caspase-3) or inhibition of apoptotic injury (Bcl-2, increased ratio Bcl-2/Bax) in the brain of newborn piglets.

METHODS:

The piglets were placed on CPB, cooled with pH-stat management to 18 degrees C, subjected to 30 min of DHCA followed by 1h of low flow at 20 ml/kg/min, rewarmed to 37 degrees C (normothermia) or to 33 degrees C (hypothermia), separated from CPB, and monitored for 6h. Expression of above proteins was measured in striatum, hippocampus and frontal cortex by Western blots. The results are mean for six experiments+/-SEM.

RESULTS:

There were no significant differences in Bcl-2 level between normothermic and hypothermic groups. The Bax levels in normothermic group in cortex, hippocampus and striatum were 94+/-9, 136+/-22 and 125+/-34 and decreased in the hypothermic group to 59+/-17 (p=0.028), 70+/-6 (p=0.002) and 48+/-8 (p=0.01). In cortex, hippocampus and striatum Bcl-2/Bax ratio increased from 1.23, 0.79 and 0.88 in normothermia to 1.96, 1.28 and 2.92 in hypothermia. Expression of Caspase-3 was 245+/-39, 202+/-74 and 244+/-31 in cortex, hippocampus and striatum in the normothermic group and this decreased to 146+/-24 (p=0.018), 44+/-16 (p=7 x 10(-7)) and 81+/-16 (p=0.01) in the hypothermic group.

CONCLUSION:

In neonatal piglet model of cardiopulmonary bypass with circulatory arrest, mild hypothermia during post bypass recovery provides significant protection from cellular apoptosis, as indicated by lower expression of Bax and Caspase-3 and an increased Bcl-2/Bax ratio. The biggest protection was observed in striatum probably by decreasing of neurotoxicity of striatal dopamine.

Comment in

  • Which cell does apoptosis induce? [Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2009]
PMID:
19217795
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC2834237
Free PMC Article
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