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FASEB J. 2009 Jun;23(6):1685-93. doi: 10.1096/fj.08-126458. Epub 2009 Feb 11.

Autocrine regulation of T-cell activation by ATP release and P2X7 receptors.

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  • 1Department of Surgery, University of California San Diego, San Diego, California, USA.

Abstract

T-cell activation requires the influx of extracellular calcium, although mechanistic details regarding such activation are not fully defined. Here, we show that P2X(7) receptors play a key role in calcium influx and downstream signaling events associated with the activation of T cells. By real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry, we find that Jurkat T cells and human CD4(+) T cells express abundant P2X(7) receptors. We show, using a novel fluorescent microscopy technique, that T-cell receptor (TCR) stimulation triggers the rapid release of ATP (<100 microM). This release of ATP is required for TCR-mediated calcium influx, NFAT activation, and interleukin-2 (IL-2) production. TCR activation up-regulates P2X(7) receptor gene expression. Removal of extracellular ATP by apyrase or alkaline phosphatase treatment, inhibition of ATP release with the maxi-anion channel blocker gadolinium chloride, or siRNA silencing of P2X(7) receptors blocks calcium entry and inhibits T-cell activation. Moreover, lymphocyte activation is impaired in C57BL/6 mice that express poorly functional P2X(7) receptors, compared to control BALB/c mice, which express fully functional P2X(7) receptors. We conclude that ATP release and autocrine, positive feedback through P2X(7) receptors is required for the effective activation of T cells.

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