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Psychosom Med. 2009 Apr;71(3):266-72. doi: 10.1097/PSY.0b013e318197a4d5. Epub 2009 Feb 2.

Lifetime history of major depression predicts the development of the metabolic syndrome in middle-aged women.

Author information

  • 1Center for Obesity Research and Education, 3223 N. Broad Street, Suite 175, Philadelphia, PA 19140, USA. ediemg@temple.edu

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To prospectively examine the association of major depression with incidence of the metabolic syndrome in women.

METHODS:

Data were drawn from one of seven sites of the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN), a prospective cohort study of the menopausal transition. Participants were 429 (34.5% African-American) women. Major depression and comorbid diagnoses were assessed via the Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition Axis I Disorders at baseline and seven annual follow-up evaluations. The metabolic syndrome was measured at baseline and each follow-up evaluation (except the second) based on National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) criteria.

RESULTS:

Longitudinal generalized estimating equations (GEE) models indicated that, in women who were free of the metabolic syndrome at baseline, a lifetime major depression history or current major depressive episode at baseline was significantly associated with the onset and presence of the metabolic syndrome during the follow-up (odds ratio = 1.82; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 1.06-3.14). Survival analyses showed that, in women who were free of the metabolic syndrome at baseline, a lifetime major depression history or current major depressive episode at baseline predicted increased risk of developing the metabolic syndrome during the follow-up (hazard ratio = 1.66; 95% CI = 0.99-3.75). Lifetime history of alcohol abuse or dependence predicted incident metabolic syndrome and attenuated the association between depression and the metabolic syndrome in both models.

CONCLUSIONS:

This study documents that major depression is a significant predictor of the onset of the metabolic syndrome. Intervention studies targeting depression may prevent the development of the metabolic syndrome in women.

PMID:
19188528
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC2882687
Free PMC Article

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