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Biomaterials. 2009 May;30(14):2675-82. doi: 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2009.01.022. Epub 2009 Feb 1.

Mesenchymal stem cell proliferation and differentiation on an injectable calcium phosphate-chitosan composite scaffold.

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  • 1Department of Endodontics, Prosthodontics and Operative Dentistry, University of Maryland Dental School, 650 West Baltimore Street, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA.

Abstract

Calcium phosphate cement (CPC) can be molded or injected to form a scaffold in situ, has excellent osteoconductivity, and can be resorbed and replaced by new bone. However, its low strength limits CPC to non-stress-bearing repairs. Chitosan could be used to reinforce CPC, but mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) interactions with CPC-chitosan scaffold have not been examined. The objective of this study was to investigate MSC proliferation and osteogenic differentiation on high-strength CPC-chitosan scaffold. MSCs were harvested from rat bone marrow. At CPC powder/liquid (P/L) mass ratio of 2, flexural strength (mean+/-sd; n=5) was (10.0+/-1.1) MPa for CPC-chitosan, higher than (3.7+/-0.6) MPa for CPC (p<0.05). At P/L of 3, strength was (15.7+/-1.7)MPa for CPC-chitosan, higher than (10.2+/-1.8)MPa for CPC (p<0.05). Percentage of live MSCs attaching to scaffolds increased from 85% at 1 day to 99% at 14 days. There were (180+/-37) cells/mm(2) on scaffold at 1 day; cells proliferated to (1808+/-317) cells/mm(2) at 14 days. SEM showed MSCs with healthy spreading and anchored on nano-apatite crystals via cytoplasmic processes. Alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP) was (557+/-171) (pNPP mM/min)/(microg DNA) for MSCs on CPC-chitosan, higher than (159+/-47) on CPC (p<0.05). Both were higher than (35+/-32) of baseline ALP for undifferentiated MSCs on tissue-culture plastic (p<0.05). In summary, CPC-chitosan scaffold had higher strength than CPC. MSC proliferation on CPC-chitosan matched that of the FDA-approved CPC control. MSCs on the scaffolds differentiated down the osteogenic lineage and expressed high levels of bone marker ALP. Hence, the stronger CPC-chitosan scaffold may be useful for stem cell-based bone regeneration in moderate load-bearing maxillofacial and orthopedic applications.

PMID:
19187958
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC2662619
Free PMC Article

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