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Mov Disord. 2009 Jan 15;24(1):15-24. doi: 10.1002/mds.22378.

The management of tics.

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  • 1Department of Neurology, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY 14620, USA.


A tic is a stereotyped repetitive involuntary movement or sound, frequently preceded by premonitory sensations or urges. Most tic disorders are genetic or idiopathic in nature, possibly due to a developmental failure of inhibitory function within frontal-subcortical circuits modulating volitional movements. Currently available oral medications can reduce the severity of tics, but rarely eliminate them. Botulinum toxin injections can be effective if there are a few particularly disabling motor tics. Deep brain stimulation has been reported to be an effective treatment for the most severe cases, but remains unproven. A comprehensive evaluation accounting for secondary causes, psychosocial factors, and comorbid neuropsychiatric conditions is essential to successful treatment of tic disorders.

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