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Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 2009 May;82(5):549-53. doi: 10.1007/s00128-009-9643-6. Epub 2009 Jan 22.

Acute toxicity and hazard assessment of spinosad and R-11 to three cladoceran species and Coho salmon.

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  • 1Ecotoxicology Program, Department of Entomology, Washington State University Puyallup Research & Extension Center, Puyallup, WA 98371, USA.


Acute toxicity data and hazard assessments were developed for three cladoceran species, Ceriodaphnia dubia, Daphnia pulex, and Daphnia magna, and juvenile Coho salmon, Oncorhynchus kisutch after exposure to the insecticide, spinosad and adjuvant R-11. The effect of a mixture of these compounds was also determined with C. dubia and O. kisutch. Spinosad was virtually non-toxic to O. kisutch. Hazard assessments indicated that R-11 posed no hazard to any of the species tested while spinosad only posed a hazard to C. dubia. Mixture studies indicated that spinosad and R-11 may interact synergistically in C. dubia.

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