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J Neuroimmunol. 2009 Feb 15;207(1-2):111-6. doi: 10.1016/j.jneuroim.2008.12.002. Epub 2009 Jan 20.

Elevated immune response in the brain of autistic patients.

Author information

  • 1Department of Neurochemistry, NY State Institute for Basic Research in Developmental Disabilities, NY 10314, New York, USA. xiaohong.li@mssm.edu

Abstract

This study determined immune activities in the brain of ASD patients and matched normal subjects by examining cytokines in the brain tissue. Our results showed that proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-alpha, IL-6 and GM-CSF), Th1 cytokine (IFN-gamma) and chemokine (IL-8) were significantly increased in the brains of ASD patients compared with the controls. However the Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5 and IL-10) showed no significant difference. The Th1/Th2 ratio was also significantly increased in ASD patients. Conclusion: ASD patients displayed an increased innate and adaptive immune response through the Th1 pathway, suggesting that localized brain inflammation and autoimmune disorder may be involved in the pathogenesis of ASD.

PMID:
19157572
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC2770268
Free PMC Article

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