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Trends Cogn Sci. 2009 Feb;13(2):65-73. doi: 10.1016/j.tics.2008.11.003. Epub 2009 Jan 8.

Socioeconomic status and the developing brain.

Author information

  • 1Center for Cognitive Neuroscience, Department of Psychology, University of Pennsylvania, 3720 Walnut Street, Room B51, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6241, USA. dhackman@psych.upenn.edu

Abstract

Childhood socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with cognitive achievement throughout life. How does SES relate to brain development, and what are the mechanisms by which SES might exert its influence? We review studies in which behavioral, electrophysiological and neuroimaging methods have been used to characterize SES disparities in neurocognitive function. These studies indicate that SES is an important predictor of neurocognitive performance, particularly of language and executive function, and that SES differences are found in neural processing even when performance levels are equal. Implications for basic cognitive neuroscience and for understanding and ameliorating the problems related to childhood poverty are discussed.

PMID:
19135405
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC3575682
Free PMC Article
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