Display Settings:


Send to:

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Plast Reconstr Surg. 2009 Jan;123(1):31-43. doi: 10.1097/PRS.0b013e3181904c19.

Differential effects of TGF-beta1 and TGF-beta3 on chondrogenesis in posterofrontal cranial suture-derived mesenchymal cells in vitro.

Author information

  • 1Department of Surgery, Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Hagey Pediatric Regenerative Research Laboratory, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305-5148, USA.



Transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1 has been associated with cranial suture fusion, whereas TGF-beta3 has been associated with suture patency. The mouse posterofrontal suture, analogous to the human metopic suture, fuses through endochondral ossification.


TGF-beta1 and TGF-beta3 expression in the posterofrontal suture was examined by immunohistochemistry. Next, the authors established cultures of suture-derived mesenchymal cells from the posterofrontal suture and examined the cellular responses to TGF-beta1 and TGF-beta3. Proliferation in response to TGF-beta isoforms was examined by bromodeoxyuridine incorporation. High-density micromass culture of posterofrontal mesenchymal cells was used to study the effect of TGF-beta1 and TGF-beta3 on chondrogenic differentiation.


TGF-beta1 but not TGF-beta3 protein was highly expressed in chondrocytes within the posterofrontal suture. Significant increases in posterofrontal cell proliferation were observed with TGF-beta3 but not TGF-beta1. TGF-beta1 led to significant increases in chondrogenic-specific gene expression (including Sox9, Col II, Aggrecan, and Col X) as compared with moderate effects of TGF-beta3. TGF-beta1 increased cellular adhesion molecule expression (N-cadherin and fibronectin) and promoted cellular condensation, whereas TGF-beta3 increased cellular proliferation (PCNA expression). Finally, TGF-beta1 and, to a lesser extent, TGF-beta3 induced the expression of fibroblast growth factors (FGF-2 and FGF-18).


TGF-beta1 and TGF-beta3 exhibit marked differences in their effects on chondrogenesis in posterfrontal suture-derived mesenchymal cells, influencing different stages of chondrogenic differentiation. TGF-beta3 significantly increased cellular proliferation, whereas TGF-beta1 induced precartilage condensation, promoting chondrocyte differentiation.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Icon for PubMed Central
    Loading ...
    Write to the Help Desk