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Lab Invest. 2009 Feb;89(2):209-21. doi: 10.1038/labinvest.2008.127. Epub 2008 Dec 29.

PTK787/ZK22258 attenuates stellate cell activation and hepatic fibrosis in vivo by inhibiting VEGF signaling.

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  • 1Department of Applied Biology and Chemical Technology, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, China.


Liver fibrosis due to hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation represents a common response to chronic liver injury. PTK787/ZK222584 (PTK/ZK) is a pan-VEGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of PTK/ZK in liver fibrosis. In primary HSCs, PTK/ZK inhibited the expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA), collagen, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1), as well as cell proliferation, migration and actin filament formation. PTK/ZK-induced apoptosis of HSCs, which was correlated with increased caspase-3 activation and suppressed Bcl-2 expression. PTK/ZK also induced cell cycle arrest, accompanied by increasing the expression of p27(Kip1) and downregulation of cyclin D1 and cyclin E. PTK/ZK significantly inhibited vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression, as well as VEGF-simulated cell proliferation and phosphorylation of Akt in activated HSCs. In a murine fibrotic liver, PTK/ZK attenuated collagen deposition and alpha-SMA expression in carbon tetrachloride-induced fibrosis in both a 'prevention' and 'treatment' dosing scheme. These beneficial effects were associated with reduced phosphorylation of Akt and suppressed mRNA expression of procollagen-(I), TIMP-1, matrix metalloproteinase-9 and CD31. These findings provide novel insights into the potential value of blocking VEGF signaling by a small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor in treating hepatic fibrosis.

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