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Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 Jan 13;106(2):593-8. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0811697106. Epub 2008 Dec 29.

Evaluation of new generation Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium vaccines with regulated delayed attenuation to induce immune responses against PspA.

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  • 1Center for Infectious Diseases and Vaccinology, Biodesign Institute and School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-5401, USA.


Increasing the immunogenicity to delivered antigens by recombinant attenuated Salmonella vaccines (RASV) has been the subject of intensive study. With this goal in mind, we have designed and constructed a new generation of RASV that exhibit regulated delayed attenuation. These vaccine strains are phenotypically wild type at the time of immunization and become attenuated after colonization of host tissues. The vaccine strains are grown under conditions that allow expression of genes required for optimal invasion and colonization of host tissues. Once established in the host, these virulence genes are turned off, fully attenuating the vaccine strain. In this study, we compared 2 of our newly developed regulated delayed attenuation Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strains chi9088 and chi9558 with the Deltacya Deltacrp Deltaasd strain chi8133, for their abilities to express and present a secreted form of the alpha-helical region of pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA) to the mouse immune system. All 3 strains induced high levels of serum antibodies specific for PspA as well as to Salmonella antigens in orally immunized mice. However, both RASVs expressing delayed attenuation elicited significantly greater anti-PspA immune responses, including serum IgG and T cell secretion of IL-4 and IFN-gamma, than other groups. Also, vaccination with delayed attenuation strains resulted in a greater degree of protection against Streptococcus pneumoniae challenge than in mice vaccinated with chi8133 (71-86% vs. 21% survival, P </= 0.006). Together, the results demonstrate that the regulated attenuation strategy results in highly immunogenic antigen delivery vectors for oral vaccination.

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