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Planta. 2009 Mar;229(4):1003-7. doi: 10.1007/s00425-008-0875-1. Epub 2008 Dec 28.

Gibberellin precursor is involved in spore germination in the moss Physcomitrella patens.

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  • 1Department of Plant Biology, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, IL 62901, USA.


Gibberellins are ent-kaurene derived phytohormones that are involved in seed germination, stem elongation, and flower induction in seed plants, as well as in antheridia formation and spore germination in ferns. Although ubiquitous in vascular plants, the occurrence and potential function(s) of gibberellins in bryophytes have not yet been resolved. To determine the potential role of gibberellin and/or gibberellin-like compounds in mosses, the effect of AMO-1618 on spores of Physcomitrella patens (Hedw.) B.S.G. was tested. AMO-1618, which inhibited ent-kaurene and gibberellin biosynthesis in angiosperms, also inhibited the bifunctional copalyl diphosphate synthase (E.C. synthase (E.C. of P. patens. AMO-1618 also caused a decrease in spore germination rates of P. patens, and this inhibitory effect was less pronounced in the presence of ent-kaurene. These results suggest that ent-kaurene biosynthesis is required by P. patens spores to germinate, implying the presence of gibberellin-like phytohormones in mosses.

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