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Gene. 2009 Mar 15;433(1-2):16-25. doi: 10.1016/j.gene.2008.11.027. Epub 2008 Dec 9.

Alternative splicing and promoter use in TFII-I genes.

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  • 1Department of Molecular, Cellular and Craniofacial Biology, Birth Defects Center, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40202, USA. aleksandr.makeyev@gmail.com


TFII-I proteins are ubiquitously expressed transcriptional factors involved in both basal transcription and signal transduction activation or repression. TFII-I proteins are detected as early as at two-cell stage and exhibit distinct and dynamic expression patterns in developing embryos as well as mark regional variation in the adult mouse brain. Analysis of atypical small and rare chromosomal deletions at 7q11.23 points to TFII-I genes (GTF2I and GTF2IRD1) as the prime candidates responsible for craniofacial and cognitive abnormalities in the Williams-Beuren syndrome. TFII-I genes are often subjected to alternative splicing, which generates isoforms that show different activities and play distinct biological roles. The coding regions of TFII-I genes are composed of more than 30 exons and are well conserved among vertebrates. However, their 5' untranslated regions are not as well conserved and all poorly characterized. In the present work, we analyzed promoter regions of TFII-I genes and described their additional exons, as well as tested tissue specificity of both previously reported and novel alternatively spliced isoforms. Our comprehensive analysis leads to further elucidation of the functional heterogeneity of TFII-I proteins, provides hints on search for regulatory pathways governing their expression, and opens up possibilities for examining the effect of different haplotypes on their promoter functions.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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