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Methods Mol Biol. 2009;471:335-60. doi: 10.1007/978-1-59745-416-2_17.

Risk factors and gene expression in esophageal cancer.

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  • 1Department of Clinical Cancer Prevention, The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA.


Esophageal cancer is a significant worldwide health problem because of its poor prognosis and high incidence in certain parts of the world. Tobacco smoke and alcohol consumption are significant risk factors for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, whereas frequent gastroesophageal reflux and subsequent inflammatory reactions play a role in causing the adenocarcinoma. Esophageal carcinogenesis involves multiple genetic alterations. A large body of knowledge has been generated regarding molecular alterations associated with esophageal carcinogenesis. These alterations include aberrant cell cycle control, DNA repair, cellular enzymes, growth factor receptors, and nuclear receptors. This chapter reviews the most frequent gene alterations and their correlation with risk factors as well as the prevention strategies in esophageal cancer.

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