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Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2009 Apr;33(4):307-20. doi: 10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2008.10.010. Epub 2008 Dec 23.

Anti-HIV drugs: 25 compounds approved within 25 years after the discovery of HIV.

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  • 1Rega Institute for Medical Research, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven, Belgium. erik.declercq@rega.kuleuven.be

Abstract

In 2008, 25 years after the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was discovered as the then tentative aetiological agent of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), exactly 25 anti-HIV compounds have been formally approved for clinical use in the treatment of AIDS. These compounds fall into six categories: nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs: zidovudine, didanosine, zalcitabine, stavudine, lamivudine, abacavir and emtricitabine); nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NtRTIs: tenofovir); non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs: nevirapine, delavirdine, efavirenz and etravirine); protease inhibitors (PIs: saquinavir, ritonavir, indinavir, nelfinavir, amprenavir, lopinavir, atazanavir, fosamprenavir, tipranavir and darunavir); cell entry inhibitors [fusion inhibitors (FIs: enfuvirtide) and co-receptor inhibitors (CRIs: maraviroc)]; and integrase inhibitors (INIs: raltegravir). These compounds should be used in drug combination regimens to achieve the highest possible benefit, tolerability and compliance and to diminish the risk of resistance development.

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