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Urology. 2009 Apr;73(4):833-7. doi: 10.1016/j.urology.2008.09.036. Epub 2008 Dec 18.

Phase I-II RTOG study (99-06) of patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer undergoing transurethral surgery, paclitaxel, cisplatin, and twice-daily radiotherapy followed by selective bladder preservation or radical cystectomy and adjuvant chemotherapy.

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  • 1Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA.



To evaluate the safety, tolerance, protocol completion rate, tumor response rate, and patient survival of chemoradiotherapy for patients with muscle-invasive operable bladder cancer.


After transurethral resection of the tumor in patients with Stage T2-T4a bladder cancer, twice-daily radiotherapy with paclitaxel and cisplatin chemotherapy induction (TCI) was administered. If repeat biopsy showed less than Stage T1 disease, consolidation with TCI was given. If repeat biopsy showed greater than Stage T1 disease, cystectomy was recommended. Adjuvant gemcitabine and cisplatin were given to all patients.


A total of 80 patients met protocol eligibility. TCI resulted in 26% developing grade 3-4 acute toxicity, mainly gastrointestinal (25%). During consolidation TCI, grade 3-4 acute toxicity, all transient, was reported in 8%. Four cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy were completed per protocol or with minor deviations in 70% of the patients. Adjuvant treatment was associated with grade 3 toxicity in 46% and grade 4 in 26%. One patient had a fatal hemorrhagic stroke. Late bladder radiation toxicity was evaluated in 53 patients with > or = 2 years of follow-up. Of these 53 patients, 3 experienced self-limited, late grade 3 bladder toxicity. The postinduction complete response rate was 81% (65/80), 36 of the 80 patients died (22 of bladder cancer). At a median follow-up of 49.4 months, the actuarial 5-year overall and disease-specific survival rate was 56% and 71%, respectively.


These favorable tumor response rates with possible increased bladder preservation rates suggest that this treatment regimen deserves further study.

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