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Eur J Echocardiogr. 2009 Jun;10(4):491-8. doi: 10.1093/ejechocard/jen313. Epub 2008 Dec 10.

The impact of ageing on right ventricular longitudinal function in healthy subjects: a pulsed tissue Doppler study.

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  • 1Division of Cardioangiology, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Federico II University Hospital, Via S. Pansini 5, 80131 Naples, Italy.



To evaluate the influence of age on pulsed Tissue Doppler-derived measurements of right ventricular (RV) tricuspid annulus in a population of healthy subjects and to propose reference values according to age decades.


Two hundred and ninety-eight healthy subjects (M/F = 186/112) underwent Doppler echocardiography and pulsed Tissue Doppler of tricuspid annulus in apical four-chamber view. Tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE), Doppler indexes of RV outflow tract and of tricuspid inflow, right atrial dimension and inferior vena cava size, and collapsibility were measured. Pulsed Tissue Doppler lateral corner of the tricuspid annulus was also recorded and annular systolic (Sa), early diastolic (Ea), and atrial (Aa) peak velocities and Ea/Aa ratio determined. The ratio of tricuspid E peak velocity and Ea (E/Ea ratio) was calculated as an index of right atrial pressure. The population was divided in seven age decades: 10-19, 20-29, 30-39, 40-49, 50-59, 60-69, and >70 years. TAPSE, Sa, Ea, and Ea/Aa ratio were progressively reduced and both Aa and E/Ea ratio increased with the increasing age groups (all P < 0.0001). E/Ea ratio was 4.1 +/- 0.9 in the age decade 11-20 years and 5.4 +/- 1.5 in subjects >70 years (P < 0.0001). By multi-linear regression analyses, after adjusting for heart rate and body mass index, age was the main independent predictor of average Sa, Ea, and Aa velocities and of E/Ea ratio.


Ageing shows an independent impact on pulsed Tissue Doppler-derived indexes of RV myocardial function in healthy subjects. Our data provide reference values of pulsed Tissue Doppler of the right ventricle for age decades.

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