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J Cell Physiol. 2009 Apr;219(1):31-44. doi: 10.1002/jcp.21647.

S6K1 is involved in polyploidization through its phosphorylation at Thr421/Ser424.

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  • 1Department of Experimental Medicine, Northern Hospital, Shenyang, Liaoning, China.


Studies on polyploidization of megakaryocytes have been hampered by the lack of synchronized polyploid megakaryocytes. In this study, a relatively synchronized polyploid cell model was successfully established by employing Dami cells treated with nocodazole. In nocodazole-induced cells, cyclin B expression oscillated normally as in diploid cells and polyploid megakaryocytes. By using the nocodazole-induced Dami cell model, we found that 4E-BP1 and Thr421/Ser424 of ribosomal S6 kinase 1(S6K1) were phosphorylated mostly at M-phase in cytoplasm and oscillated in nocodazole-induced polyploid Dami cells, concomitant with increased expression of p27 and cyclin D3. However, phosphorylation of 4E-BP1 and S6K1 on Thr421/Ser424 was significantly decreased in differentiated Dami cells induced by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), concomitant with increased expression of cyclin D1 and p21 and cyclin D3. Overexpression of the kinase dead form of S6K1 containing the mutation Lys 100 --> Gln in PMA-induced Dami cells increased ploidy whereas overexpression of rapamycin-resistant form of S6K1 containing the mutations Thr421 --> Glu and Ser424 --> Asp significantly dephosphorylated 4E-BP1 and reduced expression of cyclin D1, cyclin D3, p21 and p27, and slightly decreased the ploidy of PMA-induced Dami cells, compared with treatment with PMA alone. Moreover, overexpression of rapamycin-resistant form of S6K1 significantly reversed polyploidization of nocodazole-induced Dami cells. Furthermore, MAP (a novel compound synthesized recently) partly blocked the phosphorylation of S6K1 on Thr421/Ser424 and decreased the expression of p27 and polyploidization in nocodazole-induced Dami cells. Taken together, these data suggested that S6K1/4E-BP1 pathway may play an important role in polyploidization of megakaryocytes.

(c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

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