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Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Dec;88(6):1519-27. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.2008.26182.

Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D status of the US population: 1988-1994 compared with 2000-2004.

Author information

  • 1National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Hyattsville, MD 20782, USA. acl1@cdc.gov

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Changes in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations in the US population have not been described.

OBJECTIVE:

We used data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) to compare serum 25(OH)D concentrations in the US population in 2000-2004 with those in 1988-1994 and to identify contributing factors.

DESIGN:

Serum 25(OH)D was measured with a radioimmunoassay kit in 20 289 participants in NHANES 2000-2004 and in 18 158 participants in NHANES III (1988-1994). Body mass index (BMI) was calculated from measured height and weight. Milk intake and sun protection were assessed by questionnaire. Assay differences were assessed by re-analyzing 150 stored serum specimens from NHANES III with the current assay.

RESULTS:

Age-adjusted mean serum 25(OH)D concentrations were 5-20 nmol/L lower in NHANES 2000-2004 than in NHANES III. After adjustment for assay shifts, age-adjusted means in NHANES 2000-2004 remained significantly lower (by 5-9 nmol/L) in most males, but not in most females. In a study subsample, adjustment for the confounding effects of assay differences changed mean serum 25(OH)D concentrations by approximately 10 nmol/L, and adjustment for changes in the factors likely related to real changes in vitamin D status (ie, BMI, milk intake, and sun protection) changed mean serum 25(OH)D concentrations by 1-1.6 nmol/L.

CONCLUSIONS:

Overall, mean serum 25(OH)D was lower in 2000-2004 than 1988-1994. Assay changes unrelated to changes in vitamin D status accounted for much of the difference in most population groups. In an adult subgroup, combined changes in BMI, milk intake, and sun protection appeared to contribute to a real decline in vitamin D status.

Comment in

PMID:
19064511
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC2745830
Free PMC Article

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