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Biochim Biophys Acta. 2009 Jun;1791(6):519-23. doi: 10.1016/j.bbalip.2008.10.012. Epub 2008 Nov 12.

Chanarin-Dorfman syndrome: deficiency in CGI-58, a lipid droplet-bound coactivator of lipase.

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  • 1Graduate School of Life Science, University of Hyogo, 3-2-1, Koto, Kamigori, Hyogo 678-1297, Japan.

Abstract

Chanarin-Dorfman syndrome (CDS) is a rare autosomal recessive disease of lipid metabolism; it is associated with congenital ichthyosis typed as non-bullous congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma (NCIE). CDS is characterized by the presence of an abnormally large number of cytosolic lipid droplets containing triacylglycerol (TG) in various tissues such as the skin, liver, and leukocytes. Mutations in the CGI-58 (also called ABHD5) gene encoding a 39-kDa protein of the alpha/beta hydrolase domain subfamily have been shown to be responsible for this disorder. In adipocytes, CGI-58 is involved in TG degradation on lipid droplets; in doing so, it coordinates with several lipolytic factors including perilipin, a member of the PAT protein family, and ATGL, a putative rate-limiting lipase in adipocytes. In quiescent adipocytes, CGI-58 interacts with perilipin on the surfaces of lipid droplets. Upon hormonal stimulation, CGI-58 facilitates massive lipolysis by activating ATGL. Some CGI-58 mutations found in CDS patients cancel the ability to interact with perilipin or activate ATGL, indicating that the loss of these interactions is physiologically important. However, based on the tissue distributions of these lipolytic factors, there are likely multiple molecular targets of CGI-58 actions. This in turn gives rise to the multiple phenotypes of CDS, such as ichthyosis, liver steatosis, or neurosensory diseases.

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