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Am J Public Health. 2009 Feb;99(2):355-61. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2007.131367. Epub 2008 Dec 4.

Changes in knowledge, beliefs, and behaviors related to fruit and vegetable consumption among Western Australian adults from 1995 to 2004.

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  • 1Department of Health, Perth, Australia.



We monitored changes in self-reported knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors regarding fruit and vegetable consumption in Western Australia prior to and after a healthful-eating campaign.


We obtained telephone survey data from 2854 adults in Perth from Nutrition Monitoring Surveys conducted in 1995, 1998, 2001, and 2004. The "Go for 2&5" fruit and vegetable campaign was implemented from 2002 to 2005.


We observed changes in knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors regarding fruit and vegetable intake. In 2004, respondents were more likely than in 1995 to report 2 servings of fruit (odds ratio [OR] = 3.66; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.85, 4.70) and 5 servings of vegetables (OR = 4.50; 95% CI = 3.49, 5.80) per day as optimal. Despite this, vegetable consumption in 2004 was less than in 1995 (rate ratio = 0.88; 95% CI = 0.82, 0.96; P = .003). Perceived adequacy of vegetable (59.3%) or fruit (34.5%) intake and insufficient time for vegetable preparation (14.3%) were the main barriers.


Knowledge of the recommended fruit and vegetable intake increased following the Go for 2&5 campaign. Perceptions of the adequacy of current intake and time scarcity should be considered when designing nutrition interventions.

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