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J Refract Surg. 2008 Nov;24(9):976-83.

The Advanced Human Eye Model (AHEM): a personal binocular eye modeling system inclusive of refraction, diffraction, and scatter.

Author information

  • Breault Research Organization, Tucson, Ariz., USA. wdonnelly@breault.com



To present a commercially available software tool for creating eye models to assist the development of ophthalmic optics and instrumentation, simulate ailments or surgery-induced changes, explore vision research questions, and provide assistance to clinicians in planning treatment or analyzing clinical outcomes.


A commercially available eye modeling system was developed, the Advanced Human Eye Model (AHEM). Two mainstream optical software engines, ZEMAX (ZEMAX Development Corp) and ASAP (Breault Research Organization), were used to construct a similar software eye model and compared. The method of using the AHEM is described and various eye modeling scenarios are created. These scenarios consist of retinal imaging of targets and sources; optimization capability; spectacles, contact lens, and intraocular lens insertion and correction; Zernike surface deformation on the cornea; cataract simulation and scattering; a gradient index lens; a binocular mode; a retinal implant; system import/export; and ray path exploration.


Similarity of the two different optical software engines showed validity to the mechanism of the AHEM. Metrics and graphical data are generated from the various modeling scenarios particular to their input specifications.


The AHEM is a user-friendly commercially available software tool from Breault Research Organization, which can assist the design of ophthalmic optics and instrumentation, simulate ailments or refractive surgery-induced changes, answer vision research questions, or assist clinicians in planning treatment or analyzing clinical outcomes.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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