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Surv Ophthalmol. 2008 Nov;53 Suppl1:S3-10. doi: 10.1016/j.survophthal.2008.08.006.

Risk factors for glaucoma onset and progression.

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  • 1Frances and Ray Stark Professor of Ophthalmology and Epidemiology, Jules Stein Eye Institute, David Geffen School of Medicine, UCLA, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA.

Abstract

In this review, we distinguish among risk factors associated with the development of open-angle glaucoma in individuals with healthy eyes, predictive determinants for the development of open-angle glaucoma in subjects with ocular hypertension, and prognostic factors for the progression of open-angle glaucoma in individuals who already have the disease. We primarily reviewed recent longitudinal population-based epidemiological studies, prospectively planned clinical trials, and cohort studies. Risk factors consistently associated with the development of open-angle glaucoma in individuals with healthy eyes include older age and an approximately 1 mm Hg increase in intraocular pressure (IOP) at baseline. Family history for open-angle glaucoma may be associated with the development of open-angle glaucoma as well. Predictive factors for the development of open-angle glaucoma in individuals with ocular hypertension may be older age, thinner central corneal thickness, higher cup-to-disk ratios of the optic disc, and higher pattern standard deviation values on the Humphrey automated perimeter at baseline. Given multi-center trials that showed similar predictive factors for the development of open-angle glaucoma in individuals with ocular hypertension, a calculator is available to clinicians for assessing the 5-year likelihood of developing open-angle glaucoma in ocular hypertensive patients with certain characteristics. Prognostic factors for the progression of open-angle glaucoma in individuals who already have the condition include older age at baseline, higher IOP at baseline, and thinner central conreal thickness. Self-report of diabetes may be associated with open-angle glaucoma progression. In conclusion, the only modifiable factor associated with open-angle glaucoma that has been consistently identified is elevated baseline IOP. Future research needs to evaluate the importance of others modifiable factors such as IOP fluctuation or nutritional factors.

PMID:
19038621
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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