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Biosens Bioelectron. 2009 Mar 15;24(7):1924-30. doi: 10.1016/j.bios.2008.09.035. Epub 2008 Oct 19.

Functionalizable surface platform with reduced nonspecific protein adsorption from full blood plasma--material selection and protein immobilization optimization.

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  • 1Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-1750, USA.


In this work, zwitterionic polymers are investigated as ultra-low fouling and functionalizable coatings for biosensors, nanoparticle-based diagnostics, and microarrays to enable detections in real-world complex media. The effect of the spacer length between the two charged groups on the nonfouling properties of zwitterionic poly(carboxybetaine acrylamide) (polyCBAA) was studied in blood plasma and serum. The polyCBAA polymer with an ethylene spacer was selected for protein immobilization studies. A polyCBAA-coated surface was functionalized with antibodies using a simple and fast amino coupling chemistry for direct protein immobilization in two simple steps: surface activation and protein immobilization/background deactivation. The effect of pH was found to be very important for both steps and it was optimized. The functionalized polyCBAA surface exhibited very low fouling properties even when exposed to undiluted blood plasma for more than 6h with <7ng/cm(2) of adsorbed proteins. The biological activity of the immobilized proteins was demonstrated with the detection of a model protein in undiluted blood plasma. A recently developed highly sensitive four-channel surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor was used for the evaluation of specific and nonspecific protein adsorption to these surfaces.

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