Send to:

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Drug Alcohol Depend. 2009 Feb 1;100(1-2):146-52. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2008.10.002. Epub 2008 Nov 22.

Smoking and psychiatric disorders in the rural and urban regions of Beijing, China: a community-based survey.

Author information

  • 1Beijing Anding Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.



In China, there is limited information on smoking and its socio-demographic correlates in general, and in psychiatric patients in particular. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of lifetime, current mild, and heavy smoking, the socio-demographic correlates of current smoking, and its relationship with psychiatric disorders in the Beijing municipality, China.


A total of 5926 subjects who met the study's entry criteria were randomly selected from the urban and rural areas of Beijing and interviewed using standardized assessment tools, including the collection of basic socio-demographic and clinical data. All subjects fully cooperated in the interviews and readily disclosed all of the information.


The prevalence of lifetime smoking was 35.9%; the rates for current mild and heavy smoking were 21.8% and 10.8%, respectively. An age of 24 years or above, male sex, married, divorced, separated or widowed marital status, relatively low level of education (less than college level), being employed, a relatively high monthly income (more than RMB500), rural abode, and having a psychiatric disorder were risk factors of current smoking. Both current mild and heavy smoking were significantly associated with alcohol dependence, and current heavy smoking was also associated with a history of a major depressive episode.


The prevalence of smoking in the rural and urban areas of Beijing is unacceptably high. In addition to certain socio-demographic factors, smoking was associated with common psychiatric disorders. Nationwide surveys are warranted to further explore the prevalence of smoking in China. Effective strategies to reduce the high rate of smoking are also needed.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Elsevier Science
    Loading ...
    Write to the Help Desk