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Am J Epidemiol. 2009 Jan 15;169(2):219-26. doi: 10.1093/aje/kwn353. Epub 2008 Nov 20.

Gene-environment interaction in genome-wide association studies.

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  • 1Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089-9010, USA.


It is a commonly held belief that most complex diseases (e.g., diabetes, asthma, cancer) are affected in part by interactions between genes and environmental factors. However, investigators conducting genome-wide association studies typically test for only the marginal effects of each genetic marker on disease. In this paper, the authors propose an efficient and easily implemented 2-step analysis of genome-wide association study data aimed at identifying genes involved in a gene-environment interaction. The procedure complements screening for marginal genetic effects and thus has the potential to uncover new genetic signals that have not been identified previously.

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