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Orphanet J Rare Dis. 2008 Nov 19;3:30. doi: 10.1186/1750-1172-3-30.

The inv dup (15) or idic (15) syndrome (Tetrasomy 15q).

Author information

  • Stella Maris Clinical Research Institute for Child and Adolescent Neurology and Psychiatry, Calambrone, Pisa, Italy. abattaglia@inpe.unipi.it

Abstract

The inv dup(15) or idic(15) syndrome displays distinctive clinical findings represented by early central hypotonia, developmental delay and intellectual disability, epilepsy, and autistic behaviour. Incidence at birth is estimated at 1 in 30,000 with a sex ratio of almost 1:1. Developmental delay and intellectual disability affect all individuals with inv dup(15) and are usually moderate to profound. Expressive language is absent or very poor and often echolalic. Comprehension is very limited and contextual. Intention to communicate is absent or very limited. The distinct behavioral disorder shown by children and adolescents has been widely described as autistic or autistic-like. Epilepsy with a wide variety of seizure types can occur in these individuals, with onset between 6 months and 9 years. Various EEG abnormalities have been described. Muscle hypotonia is observed in almost all individuals, associated, in most of them, with joint hyperextensibility and drooling. Facial dysmorphic features are absent or subtle, and major malformations are rare. Feeding difficulties are reported in the newborn period.Chromosome region 15q11q13, known for its instability, is highly susceptible to clinically relevant genomic rearrangements, such as supernumerary marker chromosomes formed by the inverted duplication of proximal chromosome 15. Inv dup(15) results in tetrasomy 15p and partial tetrasomy 15q. The large rearrangements, containing the Prader-Willi/Angelman syndrome critical region (PWS/ASCR), are responsible for the inv dup(15) or idic(15) syndrome. Diagnosis is achieved by standard cytogenetics and FISH analysis, using probes both from proximal chromosome 15 and from the PWS/ASCR. Microsatellite analysis on parental DNA or methylation analysis on the proband DNA, are also needed to detect the parent-of-origin of the inv dup(15) chromosome. Array CGH has been shown to provide a powerful approach for identifying and detecting the extent of the duplication. The possible occurrence of double supernumerary isodicentric chromosomes derived from chromosome 15, resulting in partial hexasomy of the maternally inherited PWS/ASCR, should be considered in the differential diagnosis. Large idic(15) are nearly always sporadic. Antenatal diagnosis is possible. Management of inv dup(15) includes a comprehensive neurophysiologic and developmental evaluation. Survival is not significantly reduced.

PMID:
19019226
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC2613132
Free PMC Article

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