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Bioinformatics. 2009 Jan 1;25(1):141-3. doi: 10.1093/bioinformatics/btn590. Epub 2008 Nov 13.

CRONOS: the cross-reference navigation server.

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  • 1Institute for Bioinformatics and Systems Biology (MIPS), Helmholtz Zentrum München - German Research Center for Environmental Health (GmbH), Ingolstädter Landstrasse 1, D-85764 Neuherberg, Germany. brigitte.waegele@helmholtz-muenchen.de


Cross-mapping of gene and protein identifiers between different databases is a tedious and time-consuming task. To overcome this, we developed CRONOS, a cross-reference server that contains entries from five mammalian organisms presented by major gene and protein information resources. Sequence similarity analysis of the mapped entries shows that the cross-references are highly accurate. In total, up to 18 different identifier types can be used for identification of cross-references. The quality of the mapping could be improved substantially by exclusion of ambiguous gene and protein names which were manually validated. Organism-specific lists of ambiguous terms, which are valuable for a variety of bioinformatics applications like text mining are available for download.


CRONOS is freely available to non-commercial users at http://mips.gsf.de/genre/proj/cronos/index.html, web services are available at http://mips.gsf.de/CronosWSService/CronosWS?wsdl.

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