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Theriogenology. 2009 Jan 1;71(1):80-8. doi: 10.1016/j.theriogenology.2008.09.044. Epub 2008 Nov 1.

Sex-sorting sperm by flow cytometry in pigs: issues and perspectives.

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  • 1Department of Animal Medicine and Surgery, University of Murcia, E-30071 Murcia, Spain.


Several hundred thousand offspring of preselected sex of various species have been born since sperm sexing technology based on flow cytometric sorting of X- and Y-chromosome-bearing sperm and DNA was first demonstrated in 1989. The advantages derived from application of sexing technology to commercial dairy cattle production have been demonstrated worldwide. Utilizing sex-sorting technology for pig production systems offers many similar advantages. However, several factors currently limit implementation of sexing technology in pigs. Anatomical and physiological features inherent to the female pig, together with the relatively low sperm output of a flow sorter, are the main limitations to widespread use of this technology in pig production systems. This review analyzes the factors that limit the efficiency of sperm sorting technology for commercial swine production. In addition, this review discusses recent innovations in technical instrumentation and applied reproductive techniques that may help to overcome some of these limitations.

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