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Opt Express. 2008 Oct 27;16(22):17505-20.

Trans-rectal ultrasound-coupled near-infrared optical tomography of the prostate, part II: experimental demonstration.

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  • 1School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078, USA.


We demonstrate trans-rectal optical tomography of the prostate using an endo-rectal near-infrared (NIR) applicator integrated with a transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) probe. The endo-rectal NIR applicator incorporated a design presented in our previously reported work. A continuous-wave NIR optical tomography system is combined with a commercial US scanner to form the dual-modality imager. Sagittal transrectal imaging is performed concurrently by endo-rectal NIR and TRUS. The TRUS ensures accurate positioning of the NIR applicator as well as guides NIR image reconstruction using the spatial prior of the target. The use of a condom, which is standard for TRUS, is found to have minimal effect on trans-rectal NIR imaging. Tests on avian tissues validates that NIR imaging can recover the absorption contrast of a target, and its accuracy is improved when the TRUS spatial prior is incorporated. Trans-rectal NIR/US imaging of a healthy canine prostate in situ is reported.

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