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Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2009 Jan;296(1):E105-13. doi: 10.1152/ajpendo.90752.2008. Epub 2008 Oct 28.

Fed-state clamp stimulates cellular mechanisms of muscle protein anabolism and modulates glucose disposal in normal men.

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  • 1School of Kinesiology and Health Science, York University, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.


Since maximum anabolism occurs postprandially, we developed a simulated fed state with clamped hyperinsulinemia, physiological hyperglycemia, and hyperaminoacidemia (Hyper-3) and explored muscle cellular mechanisms. Whole body [1-(13)C]leucine and [3-(3)H]glucose kinetics in healthy men were compared between hyperinsulinemic, euglycemic, isoaminoacidemic (Hyper-1, n = 10) and Hyper-3 (n = 9) clamps. In Hyper-3 vs. Hyper-1, nonoxidative leucine R(d) [rate of disappearance (synthesis)] was stimulated more (45 +/- 4 vs. 24 +/- 4 micromol/min, P < 0.01) and endogenous R(a) [rate of appearance (breakdown)] was inhibited similarly; hence net balance increased more (86 +/- 6 vs. 49 +/- 2 micromol/min, P < 0.001). Glucose R(d) was similar; thus Hyper-3 metabolic clearance rate (331 +/- 23 vs. 557 +/- 41 ml/min, P < 0.0005) and R(d)/insulin (M, 0.65 +/- 0.10 vs. 1.25 +/- 0.10 mg.min(-1).pmol(-1).l, P < 0.001) were less, despite higher insulin (798 +/- 74 vs. 450 +/- 24 pmol/l, P < 0.005). In vastus lateralis muscle biopsies, phosphorylation of Akt (P = 0.025), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70(S6K1); P = 0.008), S6 (P = 0.049), and 4E-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1; P = 0.001) increased. With decreased eukaryotic initiation factor-4E (eIF4E).4E-BP1 complex (P = 0.01), these are consistent with increased mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling and translation initiation of protein synthesis. Although mRNA expression of ubiquitin, MAFbx 1, and MuRF-1 was unchanged, total ubiquitinated proteins decreased 20% (P < 0.01), consistent with proteolysis suppression. The Hyper-3 clamp increases whole body protein synthesis, net anabolism, and muscle protein translation initiation pathways and decreases protein ubiquitination. The main contribution of hyperaminoacidemia is stimulation of synthesis rather than inhibition of proteolysis, and it attenuates the expected increment of glucose disposal.

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