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Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. 2008 Nov;38(6):1187-203, v. doi: 10.1016/j.cvsm.2008.06.002.

Adjunctive analgesic therapy in veterinary medicine.

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  • 1Department of Companion Animals, Atlantic Veterinary College, University of Prince Edward Island, 550 University Avenue, Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, Canada C1A 4P3.


Adjunctive analgesic therapies are interventions for pain that involve agents or techniques other than the traditional analgesics (opioids, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and local anesthetics). Adjunctive therapies may be pharmacologic or nonpharmacologic in nature. The focus of this article is on pharmacologic interventions with potential utility as adjunctive analgesics in veterinary medicine. Pharmacology of selected agents, including medetomidine, ketamine, amantadine, gabapentin, systemic lidocaine, and pamidronate, is discussed in addition to evidence for their safety and efficacy and guidelines for their use in veterinary patients.

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