Display Settings:

Format

Send to:

Choose Destination
Blood. 2009 Feb 26;113(9):2047-55. doi: 10.1182/blood-2008-05-160564. Epub 2008 Oct 24.

Impaired apoptotic cell clearance in CGD due to altered macrophage programming is reversed by phosphatidylserine-dependent production of IL-4.

Author information

  • 1Department of Pediatrics, National Jewish Medical and Research Center, Denver, CO 80206, USA.

Abstract

Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is characterized by overexuberant inflammation and autoimmunity that are attributed to deficient anti-inflammatory signaling. Although regulation of these processes is complex, phosphatidylserine (PS)-dependent recognition and removal of apoptotic cells (efferocytosis) by phagocytes are potently anti-inflammatory. Since macrophage phenotype also plays a beneficial role in resolution of inflammation, we hypothesized that impaired efferocytosis in CGD due to macrophage skewing contributes to enhanced inflammation. Here we demonstrate that efferocytosis by macrophages from CGD (gp91(phox)(-/-)) mice was suppressed ex vivo and in vivo. Alternative activation with interleukin 4 (IL-4) normalized CGD macrophage efferocytosis, whereas classical activation by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) plus interferon gamma (IFNgamma) had no effect. Importantly, neutralization of IL-4 in wild-type macrophages reduced macrophage efferocytosis, demonstrating a central role for IL-4. This effect was shown to involve 12/15 lipoxygenase and activation of peroxisome-proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma). Finally, injection of PS (whose exposure is lacking on CGD apoptotic neutrophils) in vivo restored IL-4-dependent macrophage reprogramming and efferocytosis via a similar mechanism. Taken together, these findings support the hypothesis that impaired PS exposure on dying cells results in defective macrophage programming, with consequent efferocytic impairment and has important implications in understanding the underlying cause of enhanced inflammation in CGD.

Comment in

PMID:
18952895
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC2651016
Free PMC Article

Images from this publication.See all images (7)Free text

Figure 1
Figure 2
Figure 3
Figure 4
Figure 5
Figure 6
Figure 7
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

0 comments
How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Icon for HighWire Icon for PubMed Central
    Loading ...
    Write to the Help Desk