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Theriogenology. 2009 Jan 1;71(1):4-10. doi: 10.1016/j.theriogenology.2008.09.021. Epub 2008 Oct 23.

Advances in flow cytometry for sperm sexing.

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  • 1Photara Technologies Limited, Hamilton 3216, New Zealand.


This review presents the key technological developments that have been implemented in the 20 years since the first reports of successful measurement, sorting, insemination and live births using flow cytometry as a proven physical sperm separation technique. Since the first reports of sexed sperm, flow technology efforts have been largely focused on improving sample throughput by increasing the rate at which sperm are introduced to the sorter, and on improving measurement resolution, which has increased the proportion of cells that can be reliably measured and sorted. Today, routine high-purity sorting of X- or Y-chromosome-bearing sperm can be achieved at rates up to 8000 s(-1) for an input rate of 40,000 X- and Y-sperms(-1). With current protocols, straws of sex-sorted sperm intended for use in artificial insemination contain approximately 2 x 10(6)sperm. The sort rate of 8000 sperms(-1) mentioned above corresponds to a production capacity of approximately 14 straws of each sex per hour per instrument.

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