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J Immunol. 2008 Nov 1;181(9):6427-34.

Receptor-interacting protein homotypic interaction motif-dependent control of NF-kappa B activation via the DNA-dependent activator of IFN regulatory factors.

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  • 1Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Emory Vaccine Center, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA.


DNA-dependent activator of IFN regulatory factors (IRF; DAI, also known as ZBP1 or DLM-1) is a cytosolic DNA sensor that initiates IRF3 and NF-kappaB pathways leading to activation of type I IFNs (IFNalpha, IFNbeta) and other cytokines. In this study, induction of NF-kappaB is shown to depend on the adaptor receptor-interacting protein kinase (RIP)1, acting via a RIP homotypic interaction motif (RHIM)-dependent interaction with DAI. DAI binds to and colocalizes with endogenous RIP1 at characteristic cytoplasmic granules. Suppression of RIP1 expression by RNAi abrogates NF-kappaB activation as well as IFNbeta induction by immunostimulatory DNA. DAI also interacts with RIP3 and this interaction potentiates DAI-mediated activation of NF-kappaB, implicating RIP3 in regulating this RHIM-dependent pathway. The role of DAI in activation of NF-kappaB in response to immunostimulatory DNA appears to be analogous to sensing of dsRNA by TLR3 in that both pathways involve RHIM-dependent signaling that is mediated via RIP1, reinforcing a central role for this adaptor in innate sensing of intracellular microbes.

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