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J Psychosom Res. 2008 Nov;65(5):487-96. doi: 10.1016/j.jpsychores.2008.04.010. Epub 2008 Sep 25.

The influence of contextual factors on tic expression in Tourette's syndrome: a review.

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  • 1University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI 53201, USA.


Symptoms of Tourette's syndrome vary in frequency and intensity. Although such variability may be the result of deficits in the underlying neurological system, tic expression can also be systematically impacted by contextual factors. This article reviews research on the impact of several contextual factors on tic expression and discusses implications for future research and treatment development.

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