Send to:

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2008 Nov;12(11):1327-32.

Inequalities in smoking profiles in Morocco: the role of educational level.

Author information

  • 1Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Faculty of Medicine of Fez, Fez, Morocco.



Cigarette smoking is increasingly associated with lower socio-economic status, indicated by lower educational levels. This association has never been investigated in Morocco.


The MARTA survey was undertaken to assess tobacco use in the Moroccan population according to level of education and other socio-demographic characteristics.


A cross-sectional survey based on a representative sample of the Moroccan population was conducted in 2005-2006. The survey questionnaire gathered socio-demographic information, educational level and smoking status. chi(2) analyses were performed to determine whether the smoking outcome variables differed significantly between different educational levels in relation to demographic variables. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to calculate the adjusted odds ratio for smoking status according to educational level.


A total of 9195 subjects were included in the study; 52% were men and 17.9% illiterate. The overall prevalence of current smoking was 18.0% (95%CI 17.2-18.8): 31.5% (95%CI 30.2-32.9) in males and 3.3% (95%CI 2.8-3.8) in females. The prevalence of current smoking was inversely associated with level of education in men and increased with educational level in women. Illiterate males tended to have a higher probability of being current smokers than males with university-level education (OR 1.93, 95%CI 1.51-2.46).


These results indicate a need for tobacco control to reach all sectors of society, and especially the illiterate population.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Icon for Ingenta plc
    Loading ...
    Write to the Help Desk