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Lancet Neurol. 2008 Oct;7(10):927-38. doi: 10.1016/S1474-4422(08)70214-X.

Non-dopaminergic treatments in development for Parkinson's disease.

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  • 1Movement Disorders Clinic, Division of Neurology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.


Non-dopaminergic treatments are increasingly being recognised as part of the therapeutic armamentarium for Parkinson's disease (PD). Clinical and pathological studies have shown that the disease extends beyond the substantia nigra pars compacta and involves various non-dopaminergic neurotransmitter systems that mediate both motor and non-motor symptoms that characterise PD. To date, several therapeutic strategies have been proposed to treat such symptoms. However, despite the significant morbidity associated with these symptoms, particularly non-motor symptoms, research into and drug development for problems such as mood and autonomic dysfunction remain scarce. Here, we review novel non-dopaminergic approaches that are in at least phase II clinical development for the treatment of PD.

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