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Science. 2008 Sep 26;321(5897):1815-7. doi: 10.1126/science.1162369.

Synthesis and solid-state NMR structural characterization of 13C-labeled graphite oxide.

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  • 1Department of Mechanical Engineering and the Texas Materials Institute, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712, USA.


The detailed chemical structure of graphite oxide (GO), a layered material prepared from graphite almost 150 years ago and a precursor to chemically modified graphenes, has not been previously resolved because of the pseudo-random chemical functionalization of each layer, as well as variations in exact composition. Carbon-13 (13C) solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (SSNMR) spectra of GO for natural abundance 13C have poor signal-to-noise ratios. Approximately 100% 13C-labeled graphite was made and converted to 13C-labeled GO, and 13C SSNMR was used to reveal details of the chemical bonding network, including the chemical groups and their connections. Carbon-13-labeled graphite can be used to prepare chemically modified graphenes for 13C SSNMR analysis with enhanced sensitivity and for fundamental studies of 13C-labeled graphite and graphene.

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