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Nat Clin Pract Cardiovasc Med. 2008 Nov;5(11):715-24. doi: 10.1038/ncpcardio1347. Epub 2008 Sep 23.

Interplay between impaired calcium regulation and insulin signaling abnormalities in diabetic cardiomyopathy.

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  • 1Cardiovascular Research Center, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029, USA.


According to the International Diabetes Federation the number of people between the ages of 20 and 79 years diagnosed with diabetes mellitus is projected to reach 380 million worldwide by 2025. Cardiovascular disease, including heart failure, is the major cause of death in patients with diabetes. A contributing factor to heart failure in such patients is the development of diabetic cardiomyopathy--a clinical myocardial condition distinguished by ventricular dysfunction that can present independently of other risk factors such as hypertension or coronary artery disease. This disorder has been associated with both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, and is characterized by early-onset diastolic dysfunction and late-onset systolic dysfunction. The development of diabetic cardiomyopathy and the cellular and molecular perturbations associated with the pathology are complex and multifactorial. Hallmark mechanisms include abnormalities in regulation of calcium homeostasis, and associated abnormal ventricular excitation-contraction coupling, metabolic disturbances, and alterations in insulin signaling. An emerging concept is that disruptions in calcium homeostasis might be linked to diminished insulin responsiveness. An understanding of the cellular effect of these abnormalities on cardiomyocytes should be useful in predicting the maladaptive cardiac structural and functional consequences of diabetes.

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