Send to:

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2008 Dec;28(12):2151-7. doi: 10.1161/ATVBAHA.108.176297. Epub 2008 Sep 18.

Contribution of bone marrow-derived cells associated with brain angiogenesis is primarily through leukocytes and macrophages.

Author information

  • 1Center for Cerebrovascular Research, Department of Anesthesia and Perioperative Care, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA.



We investigated the role of bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs) in an angiogenic focus, induced by VEGF stimulation.


BM from GFP donor mice was isolated and transplanted into lethally irradiated recipients. Four weeks after transplantation, groups of mice received adeno-associated viral vector (AAV)-VEGF or AAV-lacZ gene (control) injection and were euthanized at 1 to 24 weeks. BMDCs were characterized by double-labeled immunostaining. The function of BMDCs was further examined through matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and -9 activity. We found that capillary density increased after 2 weeks, peaked at 4 weeks (P<0.01), and sustained up to 24 weeks after gene transfer. GFP-positive BMDCs infiltration in the angiogenic focus began at 1 week, peaked at 2 weeks, and decreased thereafter. The GFP-positive BMDCs were colocalized with CD45 (94%), CD68 (71%), 5% Vimentin (5%), CD31/von Willebrand factor (vWF) (1%), and alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha -SMA, 0.5%). Infiltrated BMDCs expressed MMP-9. MMP-9 KO mice confirmed the dependence of the angiogenic response on MMP-9 availability.


Nearly all BMDCs in the angiogenic focus showed expression for leukocytes/macrophages, indicating that BMDCs minimally incorporated into the neovasculature. Colocalization of MMPs with GFP suggests that BMDCs play a critical role in VEGF-induced angiogenic response through up-regulation of MMPs.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for HighWire Icon for PubMed Central
    Loading ...
    Write to the Help Desk