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Kidney Int. 2008 Nov;74(10):1327-34. doi: 10.1038/ki.2008.462. Epub 2008 Sep 17.

Use of hemodialysis and hemoperfusion in poisoned patients.

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  • 1Department of Emergency Medicine, New York Methodist Hospital, New York, New York, USA.


Extracorporeal removal techniques such as hemodialysis, charcoal hemoperfusion, and peritoneal dialysis have been used to remove toxins from the body. To define trends in the use of these techniques for toxin removal, we analyzed the 19,351 cases requiring extracorporeal removal reported to U.S. poison centers from 1985-2005. The number of such patients who received hemodialysis, excluding those with other medical indications, (normalized per million calls) increased from 231 to 707 whereas hemoperfusion decreased from 53 to 12 in the years 1985-2005. Peritoneal dialysis decreased from 2.2 in 1985 to 1.6 in 1991. The most common toxins removed by hemodialysis were lithium and ethylene glycol. There were more dialysis treatments for poisonings with valproate and acetaminophen in 2001-2005 than for methanol and theophylline, although hemodialysis for acetaminophen removal is generally not recommended. Theophylline was the most common toxin removed by hemoperfusion from 1985-2000, but carbamazepine became the most frequent toxin for removal during 2001-2005. Our study shows that the profile of toxins and the type of extracorporeal technique used to remove the toxins have changed over the years.

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