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Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol. 2008 Dec;22(6):1103-17. doi: 10.1016/j.bpobgyn.2008.07.005. Epub 2008 Sep 14.

The retained placenta.

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  • 1School of Reproductive and Developmental Medicine, Liverpool Women's Hospital, Crown Street, Liverpool L8 7SS, UK. aweeks@liverpool.ac.uk

Abstract

The incidence and importance of retained placenta (RP) varies greatly around the world. In less developed countries, it affects about 0.1% of deliveries but has up to 10% case fatality rate. In more developed countries, it is more common (about 3% of vaginal deliveries) but very rarely associated with mortality. There are three main types of retained placenta following the vagina delivery: placenta adherens (when there is failed contraction of the myometrium behind the placenta), trapped placenta (a detached placenta trapped behind a closed cervix) and partial accreta (when there is a small area of accreta preventing detachment). All can be treated by manual removal of placenta, which should be carried out at 30-60 minutes postpartum. Medical management is also an option for placenta adherens and trapped placenta. The need for manual removal can be reduced by 20% by the use of intraumbilical oxytocin (30 i.u. in 30 mL saline). A trapped placenta may respond to glyceryl trinitrate (500 mcg sublingually) or gentle, persistent, controlled cord traction.

PMID:
18793876
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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