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Chemosphere. 2008 Nov;73(8):1151-61. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2008.07.086. Epub 2008 Sep 14.

Carbamazepine and diclofenac: removal in wastewater treatment plants and occurrence in water bodies.

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  • 1Department of Environmental Process Engineering, Institute of Environmental Technology, Technical University of Berlin, Strasse des 17 Juni 135, Berlin 10623, Germany. yongjunzh@gmail.com

Abstract

In the aquatic environment, pharmaceuticals have been widely found. Among them, carbamazepine and diclofenac were detected at the highest frequency. To evaluate the worldwide environmental impacts of both drugs, their global consumption volumes are estimated, based on the dose per capita. The metabolites of these pharmaceuticals are also of environmental concerns, especially trans-10,11-dihydro-10,11- dihydroxycarbamazepine (CBZ-diol) which probably has a similar concentration in water bodies to that of its parent drug. The removal efficiencies and mechanisms of both drugs in the wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are discussed with the actual state of knowledge. The occurrences of both drugs are examined in various water bodies including WWTP effluents, surface waters, groundwater and drinking water. Their chemical, physical and pharmacological properties are also addressed in context, which can largely influence their environmental behaviors. The ecotoxicological studies of both drugs imply that they do not easily cause acute toxic effects at their environmental concentrations. However their chronic effects need cautious attention.

PMID:
18793791
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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