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J Bacteriol. 2008 Nov;190(22):7559-66. doi: 10.1128/JB.00470-08. Epub 2008 Sep 12.

A possible extended family of regulators of sigma factor activity in Streptomyces coelicolor.

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  • 1School of Biological Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747, South Korea.


SCO4677 is one of a large number of similar genes in Streptomyces coelicolor that encode proteins with an HATPase_c domain resembling that of anti-sigma factors such as SpoIIAB of Bacillus subtilis. However, SCO4677 is not located close to genes likely to encode a cognate sigma or anti-anti-sigma factor. SCO4677 was found to regulate antibiotic production and morphological differentiation, both of which were significantly enhanced by the deletion of SCO4677. Through protein-protein interaction screening of candidate sigma factor partners using the yeast two-hybrid system, SCO4677 protein was found to interact with the developmentally specific sigma(F), suggesting that it is an antagonistic regulator of sigma(F). Two other proteins, encoded by SCO0781 and SCO0869, were found to interact with the SCO4677 anti-sigma(F) during a subsequent global yeast two-hybrid screen, and the SCO0869-SCO4677 protein-protein interaction was confirmed by coimmunoprecipitation. The SCO0781 and SCO0869 proteins resemble well-known anti-anti-sigma factors such as SpoIIAA of B. subtilis. It appears that streptomycetes may possess an extraordinary abundance of anti-sigma factors, some of which may influence diverse processes through interactions with multiple partners: a novel feature for such regulatory proteins.

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