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Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2008 Sep;79(3):414-21.

Spatial analysis of risk factor of cholera outbreak for 2003-2004 in a peri-urban area of Lusaka, Zambia.

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  • 1Department of Infectious Disease Control and International Medicine, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Niigata University, Niigata, Japan.


A cholera outbreak occurred in Lusaka city between November 28, 2003 and June 8, 2004, and 6,542 cases with 187 deaths (case fatality rata: 2.86) were reported. We analyzed the distribution of cholera cases, the mode of cholera transmission, and the risk factors affecting cholera infection in a peri-urban area of Lusaka by using a Geographic Information System (GIS) and a matched case-control method. Chloropleth mapping of the incidences of cholera showed variation of the incidences in the study area. Our analysis indicated a significant association between the lack of latrine and drainage systems surrounding houses and high incidence of cholera. The matched case-control study showed the protective role of chlorination of drinking water and of hand washing with soap for cholera prevention. We concluded that cholera occurred because of personal behavior and the environment conditions of daily life.

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