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Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol. 2008 Aug;22(4):693-708. doi: 10.1016/j.berh.2008.04.002.

Osteoporosis in developing countries.

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  • 1Clinical Immunology & Rheumatology Service, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.


Osteoporosis poses a huge challenge in developing countries due to demographic transition and aging of the population coupled with limited availability of resources. The exact disease burden is difficult to quantify because of the paucity of data. Ethnicity affects bone density as well as fracture risk. Population-specific normative data for bone density are lacking in large parts of the world. Vitamin D deficiency is common even in sunny countries. The WHO has developed an algorithm for estimation of 10-year fracture risk which may be used even in the absence of bone mineral density.

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