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PLoS One. 2008 Sep 10;3(9):e3166. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0003166.

Pedestrian road traffic injuries in urban Peruvian children and adolescents: case control analyses of personal and environmental risk factors.

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  • 1Fogarty International Center/ Ellison Medical Foundation Research Fellow, Asociación Benéfica PRISMA, San Miguel, Lima, Perú.



Child pedestrian road traffic injuries (RTIs) are an important cause of death and disability in poorer nations, however RTI prevention strategies in those countries largely draw upon studies conducted in wealthier countries. This research investigated personal and environmental risk factors for child pedestrian RTIs relevant to an urban, developing world setting.


This is a case control study of personal and environmental risk factors for child pedestrian RTIs in San Juan de Miraflores, Lima, Perú. The analysis of personal risk factors included 100 cases of serious pedestrian RTIs and 200 age and gender matched controls. Demographic, socioeconomic, and injury data were collected. The environmental risk factor study evaluated vehicle and pedestrian movement and infrastructure at the sites in which 40 of the above case RTIs occurred and 80 control sites.


After adjustment, factors associated with increased risk of child pedestrian RTIs included high vehicle volume (OR 7.88, 95%CI 1.97-31.52), absent lane demarcations (OR 6.59, 95% CI 1.65-26.26), high vehicle speed (OR 5.35, 95%CI 1.55-18.54), high street vendor density (OR 1.25, 95%CI 1.01-1.55), and more children living in the home (OR 1.25, 95%CI 1.00-1.56). Protective factors included more hours/day spent in school (OR 0.52, 95%CI 0.33-0.82) and years of family residence in the same home (OR 0.97, 95%CI 0.95-0.99).


Reducing traffic volumes and speeds, limiting the number of street vendors on a given stretch of road, and improving lane demarcation should be evaluated as components of child pedestrian RTI interventions in poorer countries.

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